In this photo taken Saturday, Oct. 8, 2016, former members of the Black Panther Party laugh and visit outside a museum after an anniversary meeting in Oakland, Calif. In the front row is Billy X. Jennings, center, M. Gayle Asali-Dickson, second from right and Lorene Johnson, right. Hundreds of former Black Panthers from around the world are expected to gather in Oakland, Calif., for a four-day conference that started Thursday, Oct. 20, 2016. The Panthers emerged from the gritty city 50 years ago, declaring a new party dedicated to defending African-Americans against police brutality and protecting their rights. (AP Photo/Eric Risberg)
OAKLAND, Calif. (AP) — The Black Panthers emerged from this gritty Northern California city 50 years ago, declaring to a nation in turmoil a new party dedicated to defending African-Americans against police brutality and protecting the right of a downtrodden people to determine their own future.